How to get started?
Everyone can register and send payments - understanding the technical details of crypto currency is not needed here. After installing Bitcoin-wallet on PC or mobile device, the program will generate your unique address, which will be the main requisite for receiving / sending payments. You can create new wallets an unlimited number of times - so you can break the amount that is stored in Bitcoin into several wallets of the network.
The very principle of work is similar to e-mail: the sender sends a payment to a unique Bitcoin address anywhere in the world for the shortest period of time. No restrictions - you can send and receive any amounts in BTC at any convenient time.
Chain of blocks (blockchain)
Blockchain itself is a Bitcoin collective register , in which every transaction is automatically registered in the global network. This information is publicly available, and thanks to the block chain, any wallet can calculate the balance on your balance sheet, as well as verify the correctness of any of the transactions (that is, Confirm that in outgoing payments the bitcoins are actually written off from the sender's account). The integrity of this chain is under reliable cryptographic protection. It means that bitcoin is reliably protected from any cyber attacks.
Any transaction in this payment system is a special record containing information about transferring the BTC from one wallet to another. Each transaction is automatically included in the block. All bitcoins-wallets contain special information - a secret key, which is necessary for signing transactions.
The signature is the integrity guarantor of any transfer in Bitcoin - firstly, it serves as proof that the amount was debited from the sender's wallet, and secondly - the signature protects the transaction from any changes after transmission to the network. Typically, transactions begin to be confirmed 10-15 minutes after the BTC is sent with the help of mining.
In fact, mining is a special distributed system that confirms the inclusion of new transactions in the chain of blockchain blocks. This process is necessary to ensure the chronological order in the chain of blocks, as well as to synchronize the block chain on different computers.
In order for any Bitcoin transaction to be validated, it must be placed in a block that must follow very strict cryptographic rules, and be proven by the network. In average, blocks are created every ten minutes, and after checking it, information about the block is sent to other nodes on the network, which record it to their base instances.
The complex mechanism of blocks hashing makes it impossible for fraud with Bitcoin - all transactions are securely protected.
Need more information?
You can read the Bitcoin original documentation on bitcoin.org, as well as get the necessary information on the Bitcoin Wiki's convenient resource.